Alejo Carpentier, Alejandro García
Caturla and Amadeo Roldán participated in the Grupo Minorista
of the 1920’s which established a new vision of Cuban culture
as separate and distinct from Spanish culture and deeply rooted
in the island’s African heritage. Influenced by the ideas
and compositions of Igor Stravinsky, who sought inspiration in the
autochtonous musical traditions of various cultural groups, the
young Cuban composers delved into Afro-Cuban rhythms in search for
innovations in their compositions. Caturla’s piece is a synthesis
of a number of rhythms comprised in the complex genre of the Cuban
danza, of which the habanera is the best-known and most influential.
|Answer the following questions:
Explain how the European and native elements combine to create
a dintinct Latin American genre in classical music.
Explore the following links dealing with race relations in nineteenth
century Cuba as they are reflected in Cirilo Villaverde's "Cecilia
Valdés", the work that inspired Gonzalo Roig's zarzuela:
How does the music of Cecilia's "Salida" reflect her
race and social status? Who would dance the danza at the time? Who
would dance the contradanza? How does Cecilia's world differ from
Audio: Gonzalo Roig, "Cecilia Valdés"
Other American and Latin American composers like Aaron Copland, George Geshwin and Heitor Villa-Lobos, likewise influenced by Stravinsky's theories, sought inspiration in the music of the two Americas: jazz and Latin music, both grown from African roots.
The great teacher and conductor Nadia Boulanger, who counted Copland, Piazzolla and Roldán among her disciples, encouraged the young composers to search for musical innovations in the folklore of their respective lands.
Answer the following questions:
Explore the following site:
How did the composer and teacher Nadia Boulanger shape the artistic credo of Copland, Roldán and Piazzolla?
Find information about Heitor Villa-Lobos and answer the following questions:
Who were Villa-Lobos's followers and what musical movement did they help usher in the 1960's?
Audio: Aaron Copland:"Danzón Cubano"
Audio: George Gershwin: "Cuban Overture"
Audio: Heitor Villa-Lobos: "Bachiana Brasileira #5" (Renée Fleming; Michael Tilson Thomas-New World Symphony)